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deviated septum
deviated septum 150 150 drghaithkhorshid.com

deviated septum

A deviated septum occurs when the thin wall (nasal septum) between the nasal passages shifts to one side. In many people, the nasal septum is displaced – or deviated – making one of the nostrils smaller.

If the septum is severely deviated, it may block one side of the nose and reduce airflow, causing difficulty breathing. Sometimes people may have crusting or bleeding due to the drying of a deviated septum caused by airflow through the nose.

Nasal obstruction or congestion may result from a deviated nasal septum, swelling of the tissues lining the nose, or both.

Treatment for a stuffy nose may include medication to reduce swelling. To correct a deviated nasal septum, you’ll need surgery.



Most cases of a deviated septum cause no symptoms, and you may not even know you have it. However, some deformities of the nasal septum may cause the following signs and symptoms:

  • Blockage of one or both nostrils. This blockage can cause difficulty breathing from one or both nostrils. You may notice this more when you have a cold or allergies that can cause congestion and narrowing of the nasal passages.

Nosebleeds. The surface of your nasal septum may become dry. Which increases the risk of nosebleeds.

Facial pain. There is some disagreement about possible nasal causes of facial pain. A possible cause of one-sided facial pain may be a severely deviated septum, in which the surfaces inside the nose come into contact, creating pressure.

Loud breathing during sleep. A deviated nasal septum or tissue congestion inside the nose can be one of several causes of noisy breathing during sleep.

  • Awareness of the nasal cycle. The nose alternates between blockage on one side, then blockage moving to the other side. This is called a nasal cycle. It is unusual to feel its presence, and it can indicate a blockage in the nose.

Preferring to sleep on a certain side. Some people may prefer to sleep on their side to improve nasal breathing at night if a nasal passage is narrowed.


When do you see a doctor?

Visit a doctor if you experience the following:

  • Blockage in one or both nostrils with no response to treatment
  • Recurring nosebleeds

Recurring sinus infections



A severely deviated septum, which causes nasal obstruction, can lead to:

Dry mouth as a result of chronic mouth breathing

A feeling of pressure or congestion in the nasal passages.

Disturbed sleep, due to the inability to breathe comfortably through your nose at night


During the visit, the doctor will first ask about any symptoms you may have.

To examine the inside of the nose, the doctor will use a bright light and sometimes an instrument designed to widen the nostrils. Sometimes, the doctor will examine the back of the nose with a speculum with a long tube attached to a bright light at the end. The doctor may also examine the nasal tissues before and after using a decongestant spray.

Based on this examination, the doctor will be able to diagnose a deviated septum and determine the severity of the condition.

If the doctor is not an ear, nose and throat specialist and you need treatment, he or she may refer you to a specialist for further consultation and treatment.



Dealing with symptoms

The initial treatment for a deviated septum can focus on relieving its symptoms. Your doctor may prescribe:

  • Decongestants. Decongestants are medications that reduce swelling of nasal tissue. This helps keep the airways on both sides of the nose open. Decongestants are available as pills or nasal sprays. However, nasal sprays should be used with caution, as frequent and continuous use may cause dependence on them and worsen symptoms after they are discontinued.

Oral decongestants have a stimulant effect and may lead to irritability, as well as an increase in blood pressure and a rapid heartbeat.

  • Antihistamines. Antihistamines are medications that help prevent allergy symptoms, including stuffy or runny nose. It can also sometimes help with nonallergic conditions, such as those associated with the common cold. Some antihistamines cause drowsiness and can affect your ability to perform tasks that require physical coordination, such as driving.
  • Nasal steroid sprays. Prescription corticosteroid nasal sprays can reduce swelling in the nasal passages and help drain nasal secretions. It usually takes 1 to 3 weeks for this type of spray to reach its maximum effect; Therefore, it is important to follow your doctor’s instructions regarding their use.

Medications only treat swollen mucous membranes, but they do not correct a deviated septum.


Surgical repair

If you’re still experiencing symptoms despite medical treatment, you may have surgery to correct a deviated nasal septum (septoplasty).

During septoplasty, the nasal septum is usually straightened and repositioned in the middle of the nose. This may require the surgeon to cut and remove parts of the nasal septum before repositioning it.

The level of improvement that can be expected from the surgery depends on the degree of the deviated septum. Symptoms caused by a deviated septum, especially nasal obstruction, can disappear completely. However, any other nasal or sinus condition that affects the tissues that line your nose, such as allergies, can’t be treated with surgery alone.


Reshape your nose

In some cases, nose reshaping surgery (rhinoplasty) is performed at the same time as the septoplasty procedure. Rhinoplasty involves modifying the bone and cartilage of your nose to change its shape, size, or both.

Sleep Apnea and Snoring
Sleep Apnea and Snoring 150 150 drghaithkhorshid.com
Sleep Apnea and Snoring 

Sleep Apnea and Snoring

Snoring is a hoarse or raspy sound that occurs when air flows past the lax tissues of your throat, causing the tissues to vibrate as you breathe. Almost everyone snores from time to time, but it can be a chronic problem for some people. Sometimes, it can also indicate a serious medical condition. Moreover, snoring can be annoying to your partner.

Lifestyle changes, such as losing weight, avoiding alcoholic beverages before bedtime or sleeping on one side, can help stop snoring.

Moreover, medical and surgical devices are available to reduce annoying snoring. However, they are not suitable or required for all people who snore.


Sometimes snoring is associated with a sleep disorder, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Not everyone who snores has obstructive sleep Apnea, but if your snoring is accompanied by any of the following symptoms, it may indicate that you should see a doctor for further evaluation for obstructive sleep apnea:

  • Pausing breathing during sleep
  • Excessive daytime sleep
  • Difficulty concentrating
  • morning headache

Sore throat when waking up

Uncomfortable sleep

  • Shortness of breath or croup at night
  • Hypertension
  • Feeling chest pain at night
  • Your snoring is so loud it disturbs your sleeping partner
  • In children, poor attention span, behavioural problems, or poor academic performance


Sometimes obstructive sleep Apnea is characterized by loud snoring, which is followed by periods of calm when breathing has stopped or almost stopped. Finally, the lack of or pauses in breathing may wake you up, and you may wake up with a loud snoring or choking sound.

Perhaps you are sleeping lightly due to interrupted sleep. This pattern of pauses in breathing may repeat several times at night.

People with obstructive sleep Apnea usually experience periods of slowed or stopped breathing of at least five minutes during each hour of sleep.


When do you see a doctor?

See a doctor if you are experiencing any of the symptoms listed. These may indicate that your snoring is related to obstructive sleep pane (OSA).


If your child snores, ask your doctor. Children also develop obstructive sleep Apnea. Nose and throat problems — such as enlarged tonsils — and obesity can narrow a child’s airways. This could lead to obstructive sleep Apnea.

Snoring can be caused by many factors, such as the anatomy of your mouth and sinuses, alcohol consumption, allergies, a cold, and your weight.

When you fall asleep and go from light sleep to deep sleep, the muscles in the roof of your mouth (soft palate), tongue and throat relax. The tissues in your throat can relax enough to block the airway and vibrate.

The narrower your airway becomes, the more forceful the airflow will be. This increases tissue vibration, causing your snoring to become louder.


The following conditions can affect the airway and cause snoring:

Oral anatomy. Having a low, thick soft palate can narrow the airway. Overweight people may have extra tissue in the back of their throat which can cause the airways to narrow. Likewise, if the triangular-shaped piece of tissue hanging from the soft palate (uvula) is stretched, airflow can be obstructed and vibration increased.

  • Consumption of alcoholic beverages. Snoring can also be caused by consuming too many alcoholic beverages before bedtime. Alcohol relaxes the muscles in your throat and reduces your natural deafness against airway obstruction.

Nasal problems. Chronic nasal congestion or a twisted part between the nostrils (deviated nasal septum) may contribute to snoring.

  • Sleep deprivation. Not getting enough sleep can lead to further sagging of the throat.

Sleeping position. Snoring is usually more frequent and louder when sleeping on the back as gravity acts on the throat and narrows the airway.

risk factors

Risk factors that may contribute to snoring include:


to be a man. Men are more likely to snore or have sleep Apnea than women.

You are overweight. Individuals who are overweight or obese are more likely to have snoring or obstructive sleep Apnea.

A narrowing of the airways. Some people may have long navels, large tonsils, or adenoids that can narrow the airway and cause snoring.

drink alcohol. Alcohol relaxes the muscles in the throat, which increases the risk of snoring.

Nasal problems. If you have a structural defect in the airway, such as a deviated nasal septum or chronic nasal congestion, your risk of snoring may be increased.

You have a family history of snoring or obstructive sleep Apnea. Genetics is a possible risk factor for obstructive sleep Apnea (OSA).




Habitual snoring may be more than just an annoyance. Aside from disturbing your partner’s sleep, if snoring is associated with obstructive sleep Apnea, there may be a risk of other complications, including:

  • Sleep during the day
  • Frequent frustration or anger
  • Difficulty concentrating
  • High risk of high blood pressure, heart disease and stroke
  • An increased risk of behavioural problems, such as aggression or learning problems, in children with obstructive sleep Apnea
  • Increased risk of car accidents due to lack of sleep


To diagnose your condition, your doctor will review your symptoms, signs, and medical history. Your doctor will also perform a physical exam.

Your doctor may ask your partner questions about when and how you snore to help assess the severity of the problem. If your child snores, you will be asked how severe the snoring is.



Your doctor may order an imaging test, such as an X-ray, CT scan, or MRI scan. These tests check the structure of the airway to look for problems, such as a deviated septum.


Sleep study

Your doctor may want to perform a sleep study, depending on the severity of your snoring and other symptoms. Sometimes sleep studies may be done at home.

However, depending on other medical issues and other sleep symptoms you have, you may need to stay overnight at a sleep Center to undergo in-depth analysis of your breathing during sleep through a study called a polysomnography.

During a sleep test, your body is connected to several sensors and observed throughout the night.


During a polysomnography, the following information is recorded:

brain waves

blood oxygen level

heart rate

breathing rate

stages of sleep

Movement of the eyes and legs

Your doctor may initially suggest lifestyle changes to treat snoring, such as:

  • Weight loss
  • Avoid consuming alcohol before bedtime
  • Treat nasal congestion
  • Avoid sleep deprivation
  • Avoid sleeping on the back



To treat snoring associated with obstructive sleep apnea, your doctor may suggest:

Oral appliances. Oral appliances are form-fitting mouthpieces that help position the jaw, tongue and soft palate to keep the airway open.

If you choose to use an oral appliance, you’ll work with your dental professional to improve the fit and position of the appliance. You will also work with a sleep specialist to ensure that the oral appliance is working as intended. Dental visits may be necessary at least once every six months for the first year, and thereafter at least annually to ensure device suitability and to assess oral health.

Increased salivation, dry mouth, pain in the jaw, and facial discomfort may be possible side effects from wearing these devices.

  • Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). This method involves wearing a mask over the nose or mouth while sleeping. The mask directs compressed air from a small pump at the side of the bed into the airway to keep it open while you sleep.

A continuous positive airway pressure (SEE-pap) mask eliminates snoring and is often used to treat snoring when it is associated with obstructive sleep apnea.

Although continuous positive airway pressure is the most reliable and effective way to treat obstructive sleep apnea, some people find it uncomfortable or have trouble adjusting to the noise or feel of the device.

Upper airway surgery. There are several procedures aimed at opening the upper airway and preventing significant stenosis during sleep through a variety of approaches.

Meniere’s disease
Meniere’s disease 150 150 drghaithkhorshid.com

Meniere's disease

Meniere’s disease is an inner ear problem that can cause vertigo and hearing loss. In most cases, Meniere’s disease affects only one ear.

Meniere’s disease can occur at any age, but it usually begins between the ages of 40 and 60. Experts believe that this condition lasts a lifetime, but some treatments can help relieve symptoms and reduce their long-term impact on a person’s life.



Symptoms of Meniere’s disease include:

  • Regular dizzy spells. The patient feels dizzy that starts and stops suddenly. Dizziness may begin without any warning sign. It usually lasts from 20 minutes to 12 hours, but no longer than 24 hours. Severe dizziness can cause nausea.
  • hearing loss. Hearing loss associated with Meniere’s disease can come and go, especially early in the disease. Over time, hearing loss may become a long-term condition that does not improve.

Ear ringing. Ringing in the ears is known as tinnitus. This term refers to hearing ringing, buzzing, roaring, whistling or hissing sounds.

  • Feeling of ear blockage. People with Meniere’s disease often feel pressure in the ear. This is known as an ear blockage.

Symptoms improve after the dizziness episode ends, and may disappear for some time. Over time, the number of dizzy spells you experience may decrease.

When do you see a doctor?

Consult Dr. Ghaith Khurshid if you have symptoms of Meniere’s disease. Other diseases can cause these problems, so it is important to find out the cause of these symptoms as soon as possible.

the reasons

The cause of Meniere’s disease is unknown. Symptoms of Meniere’s disease may be caused by excess fluid in the inner ear called endolymph. But why this fluid builds up in the inner ear is still not clear.

Problems affecting the fluid that may contribute to Meniere’s disease include:

  • Not draining fluids well. This may be due to a blockage or an irregular shape of the ear.
  • Autoimmune disorders.
  • viral infection.
  • hereditary characteristics.

Because no specific cause has been identified for Meniere’s disease, it is likely caused by a combination of causes.


More severe complications from Meniere’s disease may include:

Sudden bouts of vertigo

  • Possible long-term hearing loss

The disease can occur at any time; This may cause feelings of anxiety and stress.

Dizziness can lead to loss of balance. This may increase the risk of falls and accidents.


The doctor will examine you and ask you questions about your medical history. A diagnosis of Meniere’s disease should include:

  • Two or more episodes of dizziness, each lasting between 20 minutes and 12 hours, or up to 24 hours.
  • Hearing loss confirmed by a hearing test.

Tinnitus or a feeling of ear blockage or pressure.

Meniere’s disease may have similar symptoms to other diseases. So your doctor will need to rule out any other conditions you may have.

Hearing evaluation

Hearing test is known as audiometry. An audiometry test reveals how well you can hear sounds with different pitches and pitches. It may also test your ability to distinguish between words that sound the same. People with Meniere’s disease often have problems hearing low frequencies or both high and low frequencies, but they may be able to hear sounds in the middle frequencies normally.

balance assessment

Most people with Meniere’s disease return to normal between episodes of dizziness, but you may experience some persistent balance problems.

Tests that examine how well the inner ear is working include:

  • Electro-nystagmus or video nystagmus. These tests measure balance by examining eye movement. Part of this test examines the eye’s movement as it follows a target. Another part of it examines eye movement while holding the head in different positions. A third test, known as the thermal test, tracks eye movement by using changes in temperature to elicit a reaction from the inner ear. Your doctor may use warm and cool air or warm and cool water in the ear to perform the thermal test.

Rotary chair examination. Similar to video nystagmus, this test measures how well the inner ear is working based on eye movement. The person sits on a computer-controlled chair and rotates from side to side, triggering inner ear activity.

  • Testing the muscular stress created by vestibular stimulation. This test uses sound to activate parts of the inner ear, and records how well muscles respond to that sound. It may show changes that are common in the affected ears of people with Meniere’s disease.
  • Computerized motor body position planning. This test shows which part of your stability system you rely on the most, and which parts may be causing your problems. Parts of the stabilization system include vision, inner ear function, or sensation in the skin, muscles, tendons, and joints. You will stand barefoot on a platform wearing a seat belt. Then you will have to maintain your poise in different circumstances.
  • Video head pulse test. This test checks how well the eyes and inner ear work together, and uses video to measure the eyes’ reactions to sudden movement. You will focus on a specific point, while rotating your head quickly and with unpredictable movements. And if your eyes move away from the target when you turn your head, this is a sign that you have a reflex problem.

Cochlear electromyography. This test examines how the inner ear responds to sounds. It can help detect fluid buildup in the inner ear, but it isn’t used to diagnose Meniere’s disease alone.

Other case exclusion tests

Lab tests, x-rays, and other tests may be done to rule out conditions. Other conditions can cause problems like Meniere’s disease, such as a brain tumor or multiple sclerosis.


There is no cure for Meniere’s disease. Certain treatments can help reduce the severity and duration of vertigo attacks. But there are no cures for permanent hearing loss. Your doctor may be able to suggest treatments to prevent your hearing loss from getting worse.

Vertigo medications

Your doctor may prescribe medications to take during an episode of vertigo to make it less severe:

Motion sickness medications. Medications such as meclizine (Antivert) or diazepam (Valium) may reduce the feeling of dizziness and help control nausea and vomiting.

  • Anti-nausea medications. Medications, such as promethazine, may control nausea and vomiting during a vertigo episode.
  • Diuretics and betahistine. These medications may be used together or separately to relieve dizziness. Diuretics reduce the amount of fluid in the body, which may reduce the amount of excess fluid in the inner ear. While betahistine relieves symptoms of vertigo by improving blood flow to the inner ear.

Long-term use of medications

Your doctor may prescribe medication to reduce fluid retention and suggest that you limit your salt intake. This helps control the severity and extent of the symptoms of Meniere’s disease in some people.

Non-surgical treatment methods

Some people with Meniere’s disease may benefit from nonsurgical procedures, such as:

  • Qualification. If you’re having balance problems between episodes of vertigo, vestibular rehabilitation therapy may help improve your balance.
  • Hearing aids. Fitting a hearing aid in the ear affected by Meniere’s disease may help improve your ability to hear. The doctor can refer you to an otologist to talk about the best hearing aids for you.

If conservative treatments don’t work, your doctor may suggest more aggressive treatments.

Middle ear injection

Medications injected and sucked into the middle ear may help relieve vertigo symptoms. This treatment is given in the doctor’s office. Injections can include:

  • Gentamicin. It is an antibiotic that damages the inner ear. It works by destroying the diseased part of the ear that is causing the vertigo. The healthy ear then takes over the task of balancing. But there is a risk of hearing loss later.
  • Steroids. Steroids, such as dexamethasone, may help control dizzy spells in some people. Although dexamethasone may not work as well as gentamicin, it is less likely to cause hearing loss later.


If vertigo attacks caused by Meniere’s disease are severe and difficult to tolerate, and other treatments don’t work, surgery may be a possible option. Surgical procedures include:

Lymphatic cyst surgery. The lymphatic sac helps regulate fluid levels in the inner ear. This surgical procedure relieves pressure in the area around the lymphatic sac, which in turn can improve fluid levels. Sometimes the doctor inserts a tube into your ear to drain any excess fluid.

Labyrinthectomy. In this surgical procedure, the surgeon removes the parts of the ear that cause vertigo, causing complete hearing loss in that ear. This allows the healthy ear to be responsible for sending information about balance and hearing to your brain. Doctors do not suggest this surgical procedure unless the patient has a hearing loss or complete hearing loss in the affected ear.

  • Department of the vestibular nerve. This procedure involves cutting the vestibular nerve to prevent information about movement from reaching the brain. The vestibular nerve is responsible for sending information about balance and movement from the inner ear to the brain. Therefore, this procedure usually improves vertigo while preserving hearing in the affected ear. Most people need medication to put them into a sleep-like state known as general anaesthesia, and they need to stay overnight in the hospital.
A ruptured eardrum
A ruptured eardrum 150 150 drghaithkhorshid.com

A ruptured eardrum

A ruptured eardrum (perforation of the eardrum) is a hole or tear in the thin tissue that separates the ear canal from the middle ear (eardrum).

A ruptured eardrum can lead to hearing loss. It can also make the middle ear vulnerable to infection.

A ruptured eardrum usually heals within a few weeks without treatment. But sometimes the case requires the use of a plaster or surgical restoration to heal.


Signs and symptoms of a ruptured eardrum may include:

  • Ear pain that may decrease quickly
  • Discharge from the ear that resembles mucus or is mixed with pus or blood
  • hearing loss
  • Tinnitus
  • Feeling dizzy
  • Nausea or vomiting can result from vertigo

When do you see a doctor?

Contact your doctor if you have signs or symptoms of a ruptured eardrum. The inner and middle ear are made up of delicate structures that are sensitive to injury or disease. Therefore, it is important to try to identify the cause of your ear symptoms and to determine whether or not you have a ruptured eardrum.

Causes of a ruptured (perforated) eardrum may include:

Middle ear infection (otitis media). A middle ear infection often causes fluid to build up in the middle ear. The pressure of these fluids can perforate the eardrum.

Barotrauma. Barotrauma is stress on the eardrum when the air pressure in the middle ear is out of balance with the air pressure in the surrounding environment. If the pressure is severe, the eardrum may perforate. Barotrauma is often caused by changes in air pressure associated with air travel.

Other events that can cause sudden changes in pressure — possibly perforation of the eardrum — include scuba diving and a direct blow to the ear, such as when an automobile air bag hits it.

Loud sounds or explosions (acoustic shock). In rare cases, a loud sound or explosion, such as from an explosion or gunshot, which essentially causes a strong sound wave, can perforate the eardrum.

  • Foreign objects entering your ear. Small objects — such as cotton swabs or bobby pins — can puncture or tear the eardrum.
  • Severe trauma to the head. A severe injury, such as a skull base fracture, can dislocate or damage the middle and inner ear organs, including the eardrum.


The eardrum (tympanic membrane) has two main functions:

  • Hearing. The eardrum vibrates when sound waves hit it – the first step by which parts of the middle and inner ear convert sound waves into nerve impulses.
  • Protection. The eardrum is also a protective barrier that protects the middle ear from water, bacteria, and other foreign matter.

In the event of a ruptured eardrum, uncommon problems can occur, especially if self-healing fails after three to six months. Its potential complications include:

  • hearing loss. Hearing loss is usually temporary, lasting only until the tear or hole in the eardrum heals. The size and location of the tear affects the degree of hearing loss.

Middle ear infection (otitis media). A ruptured “perforation” of the eardrum allows bacteria to enter the ear. If the eardrum does not heal, a small number of people may become susceptible to persistent infections (recurrent or chronic infections). In this small group, hearing loss or chronic secretions can occur.

  • A cyst in the middle ear (cholesteatoma). Although rare, this cyst of skin cells and other debris may appear in the middle ear as a long-term result of a ruptured eardrum.

The remains of the ear canal naturally move into the outer ear with the help of protective earwax. A ruptured eardrum may also lead to skin debris entering the middle ear and forming a cyst.

A middle ear cyst is a favourable environment for bacteria that contain proteins that may damage the middle ear bones.


Follow these guidelines to avoid perforating the eardrum:

  • Treat middle ear infections. Be aware of the signs and symptoms of middle ear infections, such as earache, fever, nasal congestion, and hearing loss. Children with otitis media are often fussy and may refuse to eat. Seek a doctor for prompt evaluation to prevent possible eardrum rupture.
  • Protect your ears during flights. Don’t fly (if possible) if you have a cold or an active allergy that could be causing nasal or ear congestion. While on and off the plane, protect your ears with either pressure-modifying earplugs, yawning, or chewing gum.

Or use the Valsalva method — gently blowing air out of your nose, as if you were blowing your nose, while holding your nostrils with your mouth closed. Do not sleep during the ups and downs.

  • Keep your ears free of foreign objects. Never attempt to dislodge secretions or hardened earwax with objects such as cotton-tipped swabs, a piece of paper, or a hairpin. These things can easily rupture or perforate the eardrum. Tell your children about the harm that may occur if they put foreign objects in their ears.
  • Watch out for the sounds of explosions. Avoid activities that expose your ears to blasting sounds. If your hobby or job involves planned activities that create blasting sounds, protect your ears from damage as long as you don’t have to by wearing protective earplugs or earmuffs.
Nasal tumors
Nasal tumors 150 150 drghaithkhorshid.com

Nasal tumors

Nasal and paranasal tumors are abnormal growths that arise in the passages in and around the nose (nasal cavity). Nasal polyps arise in the nasal cavity. Paranasal tumors arise in the air-filled chambers around the nose, known as the paranasal sinuses.

Nasal and paranasal tumors can be noncancerous (benign) or cancerous (malignant). There are several types of nasal and paranasal tumors. Knowing the type of tumor helps determine the best treatment for it.


Signs and symptoms of nasal and paranasal tumors include:

  • Difficulty breathing through the nose
  • Loss of sense of smell
  • Nosebleeds
  • Secretion from the nose
  • Pain or swelling in the face
  • Increased secretion of tears in the eyes
  • A sore or lesion on the roof of the mouth
  • Vision problems
  • A lump in your neck
  • Difficulty opening the mouth
  • When do you see a doctor?

Talk to your doctor about any persistent signs and symptoms that worry you.

the reasons

Nasal and paranasal tumors form when a genetic mutation turns normal, healthy cells into abnormal cells. Healthy cells grow and multiply at a set rate, and eventually die at a set time. The abnormal cells grow and multiply out of control, not die. Accumulating abnormal cells as a result of an internal mass (tumor).

If the abnormal cells become cancerous, they may invade nearby tissues and break away from the primary tumor to spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body.

risk factors

Factors that may increase the risk of nasal and paranasal polyps include:

  • Smoking and living with smokers
  • Breathing and inhaling polluted air
  • Long-term exposure to chemicals and air irritants in the workplace, such as wood dust, fumes from glue, alcohol and formaldehyde, dust from flour, chromium and nickel
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases


To reduce your risk of developing tumors in the nose and nearby tissues, you can do the following:

  • Quit smoking. If you don’t smoke, don’t smoke. If you smoke and want to quit, talk to your doctor about strategies that can help you. such as counselling and medication.
  • Protect yourself at work. Follow the safety rules in your workplace to protect yourself from harmful fumes and irritating substances in the air by wearing a full-face mask.